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Scott Ferrenberg. Andreas P Wion. Select Format Select format. Permissions Icon Permissions. Abstract The cost of plant reproduction or defence at the expense of other fitness traits is a central component of life history theory.
Defence; masting , mast seeding , Pinus edulis , pinyon pine , reproduction , resource allocation , trade-offs , tree growth. Open in new tab Download slide.
Table 1. This metric was standardized by the length of the annual ring sampled, which varied slightly across tree cores, and thus total resin duct area is: resin duct area mm per year per sample length mm.
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New issue alert. The MFD multi-function display displays navigational and weather information from multiple systems.
MFDs are most frequently designed as "chart-centric", where the aircrew can overlay different information over a map or chart.
Examples of MFD overlay information include the aircraft's current route plan, weather information from either on-board radar or lightning detection sensors or ground-based sensors, e.
The MFD can also be used to view other non-overlay type of data e. EICAS displays are often designed to mimic traditional round gauges while also supplying digital readouts of the parameters.
EICAS improves situational awareness by allowing the aircrew to view complex information in a graphical format and also by alerting the crew to unusual or hazardous situations.
For example, if an engine begins to lose oil pressure, the EICAS might sound an alert, switch the display to the page with the oil system information and outline the low oil pressure data with a red box.
Unlike traditional round gauges, many levels of warnings and alarms can be set. Proper care must be taken when designing EICAS to ensure that the aircrew are always provided with the most important information and not overloaded with warnings or alarms.
EFIS provides pilots with controls that select display range and mode for example, map or compass rose and enter data such as selected heading.
Where other equipment uses pilot inputs, data buses broadcast the pilot's selections so that the pilot need only enter the selection once.
For example, the pilot selects the desired level-off altitude on a control unit. The EFIS repeats this selected altitude on the PFD, and by comparing it with the actual altitude from the air data computer generates an altitude error display.
This same altitude selection is used by the automatic flight control system to level off, and by the altitude alerting system to provide appropriate warnings.
The EFIS visual display is produced by the symbol generator. This receives data inputs from the pilot, signals from sensors, and EFIS format selections made by the pilot.
The symbol generator can go by other names, such as display processing computer, display electronics unit, etc.
The symbol generator does more than generate symbols. It has at the least monitoring facilities, a graphics generator and a display driver.
The required computations are performed, and the graphics generator and display driver produce the inputs to the display units.
Like personal computers, flight instrument systems need power-on-self-test facilities and continuous self-monitoring. Flight instrument systems, however, need additional monitoring capabilities:.
Traditional electromechanical displays are equipped with synchro mechanisms that transmit the pitch, roll, and heading shown on the captain and first officer's instruments to an instrument comparator.
The comparator warns of excessive differences between the Captain and First Officer displays. Even a fault as far downstream  as a jam in, say, the roll mechanism of an ADI triggers a comparator warning.
The instrument comparator thus provides both comparator monitoring and display monitoring. With EFIS, the comparator function is simple: Is roll data bank angle from sensor 1 the same as roll data from sensor 2?
Comparison monitors give warnings for airspeed, pitch, roll, and altitude indications. More advanced EFIS systems have more comparator monitors.
In this technique, each symbol generator contains two display monitoring channels. One channel, the internal, samples the output from its own symbol generator to the display unit and computes, for example, what roll attitude should produce that indication.
Any difference has probably been introduced by faulty processing, and triggers a warning on the relevant display. The external monitoring channel carries out the same check on the symbol generator on the other side of the flight deck: the Captain's symbol generator checks the First Officer's, the First Officer's checks the Captain's.
Whichever symbol generator detects a fault, puts up a warning on its own display. The external monitoring channel also checks sensor inputs to the symbol generator for reasonableness.
A spurious input, such as a radio height greater than the radio altimeter's maximum, results in a warning. At various stages of a flight, a pilot needs different combinations of data.
Ideally, the avionics only show the data in use—but an electromechanical instrument must be in view all the time. Under normal conditions, an EFIS might not display some indications, e.
Only when some parameter exceeds its limits does the system display the reading. In the case of an input failure, an electromechanical instrument adds yet another indicator—typically, a bar drops across the erroneous data.
EFIS, on the other hand, removes invalid data from the display and substitutes an appropriate warning. A de-clutter mode activates automatically when circumstances require the pilot's attention for a specific item.
For example, if the aircraft pitches up or down beyond a specified limit—usually 30 to 60 degrees—the attitude indicator de-clutters other items from sight until the pilot brings the pitch to an acceptable level.
This helps the pilot focus on the most important tasks. Traditional instruments have long used color, but lack the ability to change a color to indicate some change in condition.
The electronic display technology of EFIS has no such restriction and uses color widely. For example, as an aircraft approaches the glide slope, a blue caption can indicate glide slope is armed, and capture might change the color to green.